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Decode binary data from a SQL expression of type TEXT.


DECODE(<expression>, <format>)


Parameter Description Supported input types
<expression> A SQL expression of type TEXT TEXT
<format> Format to use to decode binary data HEX, ESCAPE, BASE64 (case insensitive)

The HEX format represents each 4 bits of data as one hexadecimal digit, 0 through f, writing the higher-order digit of each byte first. The DECODE function accepts the a-f characters in either upper or lower case. An error is raised when DECODE is given invalid hex data — including when given an odd number of characters.

The ESCAPE format converts zero bytes and bytes with the high bit set into octal escape sequences (\nnn) and doubles backslashes. Other byte values are represented literally. The DECODE function will raise an error if a backslash is not followed by either a second backslash or three octal digits; it accepts other byte values unchanged.

THE BASE64 format, per RFC 2045 Secion 6.8, breaks encoded lines at 76 characters using a newline for end of line. The DECODE function ignores carriage-return, newline, space, and tab characters. Otherwise, an error is raised when DECODEis supplied invalid base64 data — including when trailing padding is incorrect.

Return type



The following examples decode expressions from the HEX, ESCAPE, and BASE64 format:

	DECODE('31323300343536', 'HEX');

Returns: \x31323300343536

	DECODE('123\000456', 'ESCAPE');

Returns: \x31323300343536

	DECODE('MTIzADQ1Ng==', 'BASE64');

Returns: \x31323300343536