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COPY TO (Beta)

Copies (exports) the results of a SELECT query to an Amazon S3 location in the file format that you specify.

Syntax

COPY (<select_query>)
  TO '<s3_location>'
  CREDENTIALS = <aws_credentials>
[ TYPE = CSV | TSV | JSON | PARQUET ]
[ COMPRESSION = GZIP | NONE ]
[ INCLUDE_QUERY_ID_IN_FILE_NAME = TRUE | FALSE ]
[ FILE_NAME_PREFIX = <file_string> ]
[ SINGLE_FILE = FALSE | TRUE ]
[ MAX_FILE_SIZE = <bytes> ]
[ OVERWRITE_EXISTING_FILES = FALSE | TRUE ]
Parameter Description
<select_query> Any valid SELECT statement.
<s3_location> The path to an S3 location where the query result file or files are saved. For example, s3://my_bucket/my_folder.
CREDENTIALS The Amazon S3 credentials for accessing the specified <s3_location>. See CREDENTIALS below.
TYPE Specifies the file type to save to S3. If omitted, CSV is the default.
COMPRESSION Specifies whether file compression is used. If omitted, defaults to GZIP compression format. If NONE is specified, exported files are not compressed.
INCLUDE_QUERY_ID_IN_FILE_NAME Specifies whether a query ID is included in the file name. Each time the statement runs, Firebolt generates a new query ID. If omitted, defaults to TRUE, and Firebolt saves file names using the pattern <query_id>.[type].gz, for example, 123ABCXY2.csv.gz. This allows Firebolt to generate unique file names by default. If FALSE, and FILE_NAME_PREFIX is not specified, files are exported with a generic output file name, for example, output.csv.gz.
FILE_NAME_PREFIX Specifies an optional string to use in the file name. If FILE_NAME_PREFIX is omitted and INCLUDE_QUERY_ID_IN_FILE_NAME is TRUE, the exported file name is in the pattern <query_id><file_string>.<type>.gz. If FILE_NAME_PREFIX is specified and INCLUDE_QUERY_ID_IN_FILE_NAME is set to FALSE, the specified string replaces output and the file is in the pattern <file_string>.<type>.gz.
SINGLE_FILE Specifies whether the export should be a single file or multiple files. If omitted, the default is FALSE, and the export is split based on the MAX_FILE_SIZE value. Exported files are appended with _<n> incrementally to indicate the position in series, starting with 0. For example, the first file in a series might be named 123ABCXY2_0.parquet.gz. If TRUE, only a single file is written. If set to TRUE and the file exceeds MAX_FILE_SIZE, an error occurs.
MAX_FILE_SIZE Specifies the max file size in bytes. If omitted, the default value is 16000000 (16 MB). The maximum file size that can be specified is 5000000000 (5 GB).
OVERWRITE_EXISTING_FILES Specifies whether exported files should overwrite existing files of the same name in the specified S3 location. If omitted, defaults to FALSE, and files of the same name are not overwritten.

CREDENTIALS

Firebolt needs permissions to write query results to the specified S3 location. You can specify IAM credentials using either the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of an IAM role or AWS access keys, and the specified credentials must be associated with a user or role with permissions to write objects to the bucket.

Specifying an IAM Role

Specify an AWS IAM Role ARN using the syntax shown below.

CREDENTIALS = (AWS_ROLE_ARN=<role_arn>) [AWS_ROLE_EXTERNAL_ID='<external_id>']
  • <role_arn> is the ARN of a role that you have configured for Firebolt access to the specified <s3_location>, for example, arn:aws:iam::123456789012:role/my-firebolt-access-role.
  • <external_id> is an optional arbitrary string that you assign to an IAM role when you create it, for example, 99291.

For more information about creating roles for Firebolt, see Using AWS roles to access Amazon S3.

Specifying AWS access keys

Specify access key credentials using the syntax shown below.

CREDENTIALS = (AWS_KEY_ID = '<aws_key_id>' AWS_SECRET_KEY = '<aws_secret_key>')
  • <aws_key_id> is the AWS access key id associated with a user or role, for example, AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE.
  • <aws_secret_key> is the AWS secret key, for example, wJalrXUtnFEMI/K7MDENG/bPxRfiCYEXAMPLEKEY.

For more information about access keys, see Programmatic access in the AWS General Reference.

Least privileged permissions

The example AWS IAM policy statement below demonstrates the minimum actions that must be allowed for Firebolt to write query files to an example S3 location. A permissions policy that allows at least these actions for the <s3_location> that you specify in the COPY TO statement must be attached to the user or role specified in the CREDENTIALS clause.

{
    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
        {
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": [
                "s3:Get*",
                "s3:List*",
                "s3:PutObject",
                "s3:DeleteObject"
            ],
            "Resource": [
                "arn:aws:s3:::my_s3_bucket",
                "arn:aws:s3:::my_s3_bucket/*"
            ]
        }
    ]
}

Examples

COPY TO with defaults and role ARN

The example below shows a COPY TO statement with minimal parameters that specifies an AWS_ROLE_ARN. Because TYPE is omitted, the file or files will be written in CSV format, and because COMPRESSION is omitted, they are compressed using GZIP (*.csv.gz).

COPY (SELECT * FROM test_table)
  TO 's3://my_bucket/my_fb_queries'
  CREDENTIALS = (AWS_ROLE_ARN='arn:aws:iam::123456789012:role/my-firebolt-role');

Firebolt assigns the query ID 16B903C4206098FD to the query at runtime. The compressed output is 40 MB, exceeding the default of 16 MB, so Firebolt writes 4 files as shown below.

s3://my_bucket/my_fb_queries/
  16B903C4206098FD_0.csv.gz
  16B903C4206098FD_1.csv.gz
  16B903C4206098FD_2.csv.gz
  16B903C4206098FD_3.csv.gz

COPY TO with single file and AWS access keys

The example below exports a single, uncompressed JSON file with the same name as the query ID. If the file to be written exceeds the specified MAX_FILE_SIZE (5 GB), an error occurs. AWS access keys are specified for credentials.

COPY (SELECT * FROM test_table)
  TO 's3://my_bucket/my_fb_queries'
  TYPE=JSON
  COMPRESSION=NONE
  CREDENTIALS=(AWS_KEY_ID='AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE' AWS_SECRET_KEY='wJalrXUtnFEMI/K7MDENG/bPxRfiCYEXAMPLEKEY')
  INCLUDE_QUERY_ID_IN_FILE_NAME=TRUE
  SINGLE_FILE=TRUE
  MAX_FILE_SIZE=5000000000;

Firebolt writes a single file as shown below.

s3://my_bucket/my_fb_queries/
  16B90E96716236D0.json

COPY TO with custom file name prefix and ARN with external ID

In the example below, because FILE_NAME_PREFIX parameter is specified, Firebolt adds a string to the query ID to form file names. The IAM role specified for CREDENTIALS also has an external ID configured in AWS, so the ID is specified.

COPY (SELECT * FROM test_table)
  TO 's3://my_bucket/my_fb_queries'
  TYPE=JSON
  COMPRESSION=NONE
  CREDENTIALS = (AWS_ROLE_ARN='arn:aws:iam::123456789012:role/my-firebolt-role' AWS_ROLE_EXTERNAL_ID='99291')
  FILE_NAME_PREFIX='_query_result';

Firebolt assigns the query an id of 16B90E96716236D6 at runtime and writes files as shown below.

s3://my_bucket/my_fb_queries/
  16B90E96716236D6_query_result_0.json
  16B90E96716236D6_query_result_1.json
  16B90E96716236D6_query_result_2.json
  16B90E96716236D6_query_result_3.json
  16B90E96716236D6_query_result_4.json

COPY TO with custom file name and overwrite set to TRUE

In the example below, INCLUDE_QUERY_ID_IN_FILE_NAME is set to FALSE and a FILE_NAME_PREFIX is specified. In this case, Firebolt writes files using only the specified FILE_NAME_PREFIX as the file name. In addition, SINGLE_FILE and OVERWRITE_EXISTING_FILES are set to TRUE so that the S3 location always contains a single file with the latest query results.

COPY (SELECT * FROM test_table)
  TO 's3://my_bucket/my_fb_query'
  TYPE=JSON
  COMPRESSION=NONE
  CREDENTIALS=(AWS_ROLE_ARN = 'arn:aws:iam::123456789012:role/my-firebolt-role')
  INCLUDE_QUERY_ID_IN_FILE_NAME=FALSE
  SINGLE_FILE=TRUE
  FILE_NAME_PREFIX='latest-fb-query-result'
  MAX_FILE_SIZE=5000000000
  OVERWRITE_EXISTING_FILES=TRUE;

Firebolt writes a single file as shown below.

s3://my_bucket/my_fb-query/
  latest-fb-query-result.json