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EXTRACT

Retrieves the time unit, such as year or hour, from a DATE, TIMESTAMP, or TIMESTAMPNTZ value.

Syntax

EXTRACT(<time_unit> FROM <expression>)

Parameters

Parameter Description Supported input types
<time_unit> The time unit to extract from the expression. microseconds, milliseconds, second, minute, hour, day, week, month, quarter, year, decade, century, millennium (unquoted)
<expression> The expression from which the time unit is extracted. DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ

TIMESTAMPTZ values are converted from Unix time to local time according to the session’s time_zone setting before extracting the time_unit. The set of allowed time_unit values depends on the data type of <expression>. Furthermore, the return type depends on the time_unit.

Time Units

Unit Description Supported input types Return type Example
century Extract the century. The first century starts on 0001-01-01 and ends on 0100-12-31 (inclusive). DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(century FROM TIMESTAMP '0100-12-31'); --> 1
day Extract the day (of the month) field. DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(day FROM DATE '2001-02-16'); --> 16
decade Extract the year field divided by 10. DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(decade FROM DATE '0009-12-31'); --> 0
dow Extract the day of the week as Sunday (0) to Saturday (6). DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(dow FROM DATE '2022-10-13'); --> 4
doy Extract the day of the year (1–365/366). DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(doy FROM DATE '1972-02-29'); --> 60
epoch For TIMESTAMPTZ, extract the number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC. For TIMESTAMP, extract the number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 independent of a time zone. DATE expressions are implicitly converted to TIMESTAMP. DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ DECIMAL(38, 6) SELECT EXTRACT(epoch FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40.12'); --> 982355920.120000
hour Extract the hour field (0–23). TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(hour FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40.12'); --> 20
isodow Extract the day of the week as Monday (1) to Sunday (7). DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(isodow FROM DATE '2022-10-13'); --> 4
isoyear Extract the ISO 8601 week-numbering year that the date falls in. Each ISO 8601 week-numbering year begins with the Monday of the week containing the 4th of January; so in early January or late December the ISO year may be different from the Gregorian year. DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(isoyear FROM DATE '2006-01-01'); --> 2005
microseconds Extract the seconds field, including fractional parts, multiplied by 1,000,000. TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(microseconds FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40.12'); --> 40120000
millennium Extract the millennium. The third millennium started on 2001-01-01. DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(millennium FROM TIMESTAMP '1000-12-31 23:59:59.999999'); --> 1
milliseconds Extract the seconds field, including fractional parts, multiplied by 1,000. TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ DECIMAL(8, 3) SELECT EXTRACT(milliseconds FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40.12'); --> 40120.000
minute Extract the minutes field (0–59). TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(minute FROM TIMESTAMP '1000-12-31 23:42:59'); --> 42
month Extract the number of the month within the year (1–12). DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(month FROM DATE '1000-12-31'); --> 12
quarter Extract the quarter of the year (1–4) that the date is in:
[01, 03] -> 1
[04, 06] -> 2
[07, 09] -> 3
[10, 12] -> 4
DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(quarter FROM DATE '1000-10-31'); --> 4
second Extract the second’s field, including fractional parts. TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ DECIMAL(8, 6) SELECT EXTRACT(second FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40.12'); --> 40.120000
timezone Extract the time zone offset from UTC, measured in seconds, with a positive sign for zones east of Greenwich. TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(timezone FROM TIMESTAMPTZ '2022-11-29 13:58:23 Europe/Berlin'); --> -28800 (assumes set time zone is ‘US/Pacific’)
timezone_hour Extract the hour component of the time zone offset. TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(timezone_hour FROM TIMESTAMPTZ '2022-11-29 13:58:23 Europe/Berlin'); --> -8 (assumes set time zone is ‘US/Pacific’)
timezone_minute Extract the minute component of the time zone offset. TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(timezone_minute FROM TIMESTAMPTZ '2022-11-29 13:58:23 Europe/Berlin'); --> 0 (assumes set time zone is ‘US/Pacific’)
week Extract the number of the ISO 8601 week-numbering week of the year. By definition, ISO weeks start on Mondays and the first week of a year contains January 4 of that year. It is possible for early-January dates to be part of the 52nd or 53rd week of the previous year, and for late-December dates to be part of the first week of the next year. DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ. INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(week FROM DATE '2005-01-01'); --> 53
SELECT EXTRACT(week from DATE '2006-01-01'); --> 52
year Extract the year field. DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ INTEGER SELECT EXTRACT(year FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16'); --> 2001

Return Types

A time unit matching the function’s specifications

Remarks

The EXTRACT function can be used in the PARTITION BY clause of CREATE TABLE commands.

CREATE DIMENSION TABLE test (
  d DATE,
  t TIMESTAMP
)
PARTITION BY EXTRACT(month FROM d), EXTRACT(hour FROM t);